Water is a part of our everyday life. Life as we know it could not exist without water and although it may seem to be a simple substance made up of just one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms its complexity lies in its size and properties.
Studies on the structure of water
- The Enigmatic Substance- Quantum mechanical calculations applied to the study of water clusters.
- Structure Means Function - Discussion on lone pair electrons, 'bent' electrons and electronegativity.
- Properties of Water - Fine bullet points about the most important facts on water properties.
- Water Structure and Science - Water as a network of icosahedral clusters.
Water is made unique by its variety of anomalous properties. These properties change the behavior of liquid water in a way no other liquid molecule can act. Water in its frozen and gas form also acts differently when compared to other solid and gaseous molecules.
- PDF for Boston University - Anomalies of water and simple liquids
- Water Anomalies - Phase diagram and explanation of phase anomalies of water.
- 41 Anomalies of Water - Insights into phases of liquid water from its unusual properties.
Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom attaches to two atoms instead of just one. This can happen when partially positive hydrogen atoms lie between partially negative charged atoms of nitrogen and oxygen.
- Structure Tutorials - Hydrogen bonding in water.
- Water and hydrogen bonds - The unique combination of three nuclei and ten electrons.
- Edinformatics - Why is water such a good solvent?
- Sticky Water - Explanation of hydrogen bonding. h
- The Hydrogen Bond from NYU - Discussion of dipole-dipole interactions during Hydrogen bonding.
When a hydrogen atom splits from a water molecule it has a positive charge that attracts to negative charged hydrogen and oxygen atoms. When this happens water can end up having a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than normal water making it ionized. When water has this higher concentration of positive ions it is called acidic. Alkaline water would be Ionized water with a higher count of hydrogen-oxygen pairs. Some believe that ionized water is beneficial to the body by helping to rid it of free radicals others believe its a huge money making scam.
- Department of Chemistry at Illinois U - Electrolysis of water using an electrical current.
- Ionization From Purdue U: Auto-ionization of water equations.
- Why Drink Alkaline Ionized Water - Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi explains why he believes Ionized water is a benefit to your body.
- Ionized and alkaline water- A chemist tells why he believes claims of ionized water is worthless and why no one should buy into expensive machines and ionization products.
Water Hydration Resources