The Ultimate Collection of Chemistry Resources
Chemistry has been around for centuries. There is evidence
that Ancient Egypt used chemistry nearly 4,000 years ago. Chemistry, as
a physical science, focuses on areas of matter, specifically the
organization, structure, and actions of matter. There are several
disciplines of chemistry and as history progress so do the studies and
the influences of chemistry in society.
Acids, Bases & Buffers
Classifying compounds is established by what occurs when acids
and bases are placed in water. The strength of the occurrence
varies and changes the pH of the solution. When these
compounds consist of weak acid and its conjugated base its known as a
buffer. These resources will show a variety of buffer solutions.
Acids, Base Balance: Slide show
with PowerPoint download presentations exploring acid, base and buffer
Acids, Bases and pH: A lesson
defining acids, bases, and explaining the pH scale. Included is an
animation of a proton exchange.
Acids, Bases and Buffers: A chapter
review of basic chemistry acids, bases, and buffers.
The atomic theory has gone through revisions since it's
founding in ancient Greece, when the theory stated that there existed
indivisible units known as atoms making up matter. In the late 1800's
it was discovered that theses units were comprised up of smaller
particles. In the modern atomic theory, the units in matter are
indivisible periodically. It was John Dalton who developed the atomic
theory that is utilized in today's science.
Dalton's Atomic Theory: A summary
of the development Dalton's atomic theory.
Atomic Theory: The atomic theory
explored from 400 B.C. to 1924 explaining and visually describing the
methods and properties behind the atomic theory.
Modern Atomic Theory: A
look into Neil Bohr's planetary model of the atom impact on the atomic
Chemical bonding is the process of atoms, or molecules,
combing to form chemical compounds. The process is initiated by
electromagnetic force. There are three major chemical bonds, each with
Chemical Bonding: An explicit
description of chemical bonding and it place in chemistry, concepts,
and activities to increase understanding of the process.
Hydrogen Bonding: Explanation and
comparisons of a hydrogen atom interacting with an electronegative
atom, known as hydrogen bonding.
Ionic Bonding: Observations
explaining the process of ionic bonding.
Carbon chemistry is scientifically known as organic chemistry
and addresses the formation of carbon compounds. The carbon element is
the sixth most prevalent element and the compound is the source of all
life development. It is the source or the foundation of living
organisms making it incredibly essential to the development of
chemicals, foods, and medicine.
The Chemistry of Carbon: Describes
the property, construction, and reaction of hydrocarbons.
Carbon Chemistry Concepts: An
interactive diagram of carbon concepts.
Organic Chemistry: The study of
organic carbon compound properties is explained in entirety.
Chemical journals provide research, reviews, and scientific
advancements. Chemistry journals are not just for the chemist of today,
but also for the chemist of tomorrow. Journals probe research and
advancements to transform medicine, the environment, and physics. The
following journals focus on chemistry in general, medicine, and
New Journal of Chemistry: The
journal publishes research and opinion articles of diverse and emerging
Journal of Medicine Chemistry: View
articles dated back to 1959 that explore the connection of linking
molecular construction and biological action.
Chemistry: A monthly peer reviewed journal of research and
groundbreaking techniques, processes, and analyses of clinical
Having the proper equipment in the lab is necessary for proper
evaluating properties and chemical interaction. Safety is part of the
process of successfully utilizing tools. Chemists require basic tools
in laboratory function. Certain tools are more vital depending on the
research or project being performed.
Lab Equipment - A list of the most
frequent chemistry tools uses.
Safety Equipment: Visual and
explanation of use of common safety equipment in most chemistry labs.
The Organic Lab- A safety and
chemistry tool guide that can be utilized in lab.
Researching chemistry courses and description of educational
styles? Focusing on a main discipline of chemistry? Compare perquisites
and course descriptions to determine how to prepare or to help choose a
discipline of study. Listed are a few different course descriptions.
Chemistry Lesson Plans: Provides
mini-lessons about a variety of subjects within chemistry.
Chemistry Lessons for Students:
Incorporate a variety of different chemistry lessons into your science
Organic Chemistry Lesson Plans:
Lesson plans that address a variety of different learning levels.
Energy & Entropy
The Second law of thermodynamics consists of an essential
process known as entropy. Entropy provides a snapshot of the evolution
of a system. These thermodynamics transmit energy and this energy is
known as thermal energy. The conversion of this energy is
converted into other forms of energy.
What is Energy?: Defines energy and
describes the two forms of energy.
Entropy and Energy: A
concise explanation of energy and entropy.
Unavailable Energy: Notes
explaining equations of entropy and unavailable energy.
Entropy and Information Theory:
Explore 313 pages of scientific research of information sources and
Environmental chemistry is the examination of chemical and
biochemical occurrences in nature. The use of this form of chemistry
provides understanding of interactions within the atmosphere, soil and
water. Environmental chemists focus on effects, reactions, and
solutions of chemical activity among all environments including human
activity. Environmental chemistry allows for solutions to chemical
based environmental issues.
What is it? Defines environmental
chemistry and provides in-depth data, models, solutions, and case
Environmental Chemistry: A slide
show explaining what environmental chemistry is and the history behind
Chemistry of Earths Atmosphere:
Shows the compound that play role in environmental chemistry.
The assembly of electrons in physical compositions such as
atoms or molecules is known as electron configuration. It shows how
electrons are allocated amid energy intensity and orbital levels. In
the following resources examples of electron configurations are given.
Also tables are provided with instructions on how to read the table.
Quantum Numbers and Electron Configurations:
Illustrates the combinations of quantum numbers, solutions of electron
configurations, and provide a table of the electron configurations of
Electron Configuration: Explains
the quantum number used to describe the configuration of an
The Configuration: Construct your
own electron configurations with this applet.
Equations & Stoichiometry
Writing chemical equations is absolutely necessary to
illustrate chemistry in action. Balanced equations include products and
reactants; the relationship of the two is known as stoichiometry.
Stoichiometry is the math foundation of chemistry. Examples of chemical
and stoichiometry equations are provided in the resources along with
solutions for the most common balanced equations.
Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry:
The basics of chemical equations and stoichiometry are explained.
Types of Equations: The article is
aimed to guide students in writing and balancing equations and predict
solutions for organic reactions.
Stoichiometry of Chemical Equations:
A chemical reaction java applet that provides input for incorrect
stoichiometry and explains the importance of studying stoichiometry.
The concept of equilibrium impacts the study of mathematics in
examining the universe. The state of equilibrium is rare. When a state
of stability or balance occurs it is only for a brief moment. There are
many forms of equilibrium and the resources below indulge in three of
Interactive applet of a sequence of experiments.
Rotational Equilibrium: Brief
definitions and example equations of rotational and linear state
Chemical Equilibrium: Interactive
applets of exercises reproducing gaseous reaction.
The product of a composition compound shown through an
arrangement of elemental symbols and subscript numbers is a chemical
formula. Ions, molecules, and atoms are important units within
formulas. One must differentiate between molecular and ionic compound
to effectively write these types of formulas. These formulas express
information on atoms allowing chemical formulas to be used in chemical
Chemical Formulas- Concentrates on
chemical formulas and the names of ionic compounds.
Chemical Names and Formulas:
Outline of using the periodic table to write formulas.
Formulas: A slide show of chemical
The history of chemistry is more than formulas, equations,
beakers, and unexplainable universe experiences. Ancient civilizations
are an increment beginning of chemistry, influencing scientists and
experiments throughout time. The world's understanding of chemistry has
grown from the time of alchemy, industrial chemistry, to chemistry, as
we know today. Chemist of yesterday have uncovered chemical elements,
inventions, and experiments that promote today's chemist understanding
History of Chemistry: A
chronological timeline history of chemistry.
Scientist and Experiments: An index
of scientists and experiments of chemistry through out history.
Explore Chemical History: The story
of chemistry through ancient times up to current times.
Labs & Safety
Safety can never be under estimated in the lab. Understanding
the environment of the lab in which experiments and research takes
place is vital to discovery and maintaining quality of the
work. The nature of the lab expects respect of equipment and
the environment. Without lab safety there is no foundation for students
or chemist to perform to excellence.
Chemistry Laboratory: General
safety requirements in any basic laboratory.
Safety Manual: A safety manual for
the Duke chemistry laboratory that can be implemented in any
Lab Safety Tutorial: An interactive
tutorial designed and developed for students to better their
understanding of safety in the lab.
Amadeo Avogadro is the physics professor behind the number of
objects in one mole. History has allowed advancement in the mole
concept by scientist such as Stanislao Cannizzaro, and Johann Josef
Loschmidt. The concept of the mole is a reference to numbers of atoms
and molecules. Using the mole to identify the number of molecules is an
uncomplicated form compared to referring to trillions or quadrillions
The Mole Concept: Frequently asked
questions about the mole concept answered.
The Mole: The mole defined,
explained, and illustrated.
Mole Concept: The mole concept
broken down with calculations, compounds, and elements.
The structure of molecules is a three-dimensional assembly of
atoms that compose a molecule. Molecular structure establishes
properties such as reactivity, polarity, and biological movement. To
construct or predict the shape of a molecule one must illustrate the
Lewis Structure of the molecule. The resources illustrate
shapes and formulas using the Lewis Structure and VSPER module.
The Shape of Molecules: Illustrates
the shape of molecules.
Molecular Shape and Structure:
Concepts, modules, examples and solutions of molecular formulas.
Molecular Shapes: VSPER module of
basic molecular shapes and formulas that represent that shape.
Nuclear Power is an emission-free energy that produces no
controlled air pollutants, but produces speculations with radioactive
waste, possibility of terrorist attacks, and the scarceness of Uranium.
Debate over nuclear power has existed for years despite the advantages
of the low carbon dioxide produced, ability of technology, and amounts
of electrical energy produced from one single plant. The debate of the
future of nuclear power can be explored further through citation of
scientists and educators.
Future of Nuclear Power: A MIT study exploring the future of
nuclear power with downloadable PDF's.
The Risk: Bernard L. Cohen points
out the risks of nuclear power.
More About Nuclear Energy: Frequently
asked questions about the advancements of nuclear
The chemical reaction of an atom oxidation state changed is
the process of oxidation-reduction. Its an reversible chemical action
one being oxidation and the reverse reduction. Oxidation refers to the
oxidation number of the atom becomes greater. Reduction is the other
spectrum occurring when the oxidation number becomes lesser.
Oxidation/Reduction: An explicit
tutorial guide with five in-depth parts explaining oxidation-reduction.
A Review: A chemistry tutorial
covering oxidation-reduction equations.
Redox Reactions: Formula
information for oxidation-reduction reactions.
The Nobel Prize has been awarded in chemistry since 1901. . It
is an annual award that recognizes excellence in contributions in
chemistry, other academics, and peace efforts as well. The
first chemist Nobel Prize winner was Jacobus H. van 't Hoff. Those
chemists who have been honored with Nobel Prize receive a medal,
diploma, and cash award. These laureates influence chemistry
research and the broaden the world understanding of chemistry,
A Nobel Legacy- A Harvard guide to
chemist laureates attending Harvard.
Noble Laureates in Chemistry- A
list of all the Nobel Laureates in chemistry.
Evaluate and organize chemical elements properties using the
periodic table of elements. The table consists of 118 elements. The
following tables offer diverse characteristics to provide a fun,
traditional or unique way to learn about chemical elements. These
tables are unique in approach, but still offer equal edification of
Periodic Table of Comic Books: Its
more than your favorite comic book character, it's the elements in pure
Periodic Table: Click on an element
to view its properties.
Periodic Table of Elements: This
resource for all students provides history, sources, properties, and
uses of elements.
Chemistry involves several branches of studies. All areas of
chemistry focus on the chemical reactions of matter. Whether
professional or educational, chemistry projects promote an
understanding and enlighten society and individuals with its scientific
conclusion. The role of chemistry in matter can be identified more
clearly through projects and research.
Home Experiments: Chemistry
experiments that can be conducted at home.
Chemistry Projects: A look into a
magnetic molecule project conducted by Ames Laboratory.
Atmospheric Chemistry: The
International Global Atmospheric Chemistry organizations collaborate
research and projects conducted by scientist worldwide.
Chemistry publications are another resource to gaining
knowledge into past and current chemistry research. Educational
institutes, non-profit organizations, and government associations
provide reports and input in publications that make them even more
credible. Chemistry publications are written for various chemistry
disciplines. The following are two-publication focus on chemistry
instruments and analytical chemistry.
National Science Publications: Downloadable
PDF publication on instrument development in chemistry.
Analytical Chemistry: Past
and present journal articles and government published reports on the
study of chemical composition of natural and artificial material.
States of Matter
There are three basic states of matter: gas, liquids, and
solid. These amounts can change depending on the expectations of
research, education curriculum, or the experiment. Those three
basics can be joined with other states of matter such as plasmas and
Bose Einstein condensates. These states are known as phases that
respond to physical force and change due to physical force.
States of Matter: Interactive
module stimulator of molecules changing into gas, liquid, or solid.
The States of Matter: This module
focuses on seven aspects of the state matter.
Solutions: Illustrates the
solutions that represent states of matter.
Solutions & Solubility
Solution is a combination of materials consisting typically of
a solvent. The solvent is combined with a solute. Many solutions are
very common such as a brine of sugar, salt and water. Then there is
solubility it measures the dissolvability of the solute in the
solvent. Temperature and the concentration of the solution
affect the solubility. Apply the rules of solubility to compare a
series of compounds.
Solubility Rules- The basic rules
of compound solubility.
An instructional lesson on the involvement of equilibrium in
solubility. Equations are illustrated and explained to determine
Solutions: A solution page on the
various types of solutions such as percent, molar, normal, concentrated
solutions, saturates, and solutions from solution and titrations.