Guide to Emergency Water Purification
a natural disaster, such as a hurricane, earthquake or tsunami strikes,
one of the first resources to be threatened is the public water supply.
In 2010, the earthquake in Haiti left thousands without access to clean
drinking water and cholera broke out all over the country. Recently, in
2011, a large earthquake struck Japan, damaging a nuclear plant in
Fukushima. Since then, traces of radioactive iodine have been found
the tap water in nearby areas. Many residents in cities across the U.S.
have faced a boil water advisory at least once
in their lifetime. Some
water supplies have been affected by natural gas drilling in certain
areas as well.
During emergencies, people must be wary of what
is in their drinking water. Both natural and man-made environmental disasters
cause water to become contaminated with bacteria, viruses, cysts
(giardia and cryptosporidium) and toxic chemicals. Bottled water is
often the solution, when access to safe tap water is limited.
Convenience stores in areas where boil water advisories have been
issued have been known to run out of bottled water. Boiling water is
not the most convenient way to handle a water shortage, but it is a
safe bet when there are no other alternatives. However, boiling is just
one of several methods of water purification during
Water Purification by Boiling
Boiling water is a feasible method of water purification if a source of
heat is available. This method renders viruses, bacteria and other
Though they are still present in the water, they are unable to cause
waterborne illness. To ensure that the water is safe, you should filter
it through a paper towel, cloth or coffee filter to remove large dirt
and sediment particles; then allow it to boil rapidly for 10 minutes.
At higher altitudes, raise the boiling time by one minute per 1000
feet above sea level. Boiling is effective for small quantities of
water, but for larger households or for purposes where a larger quanity
is needed, you may want to try another method.
Chemical Water Treatment
chemically treat water, place drops or tablets of the chemical being
used into the water, swish it around to aid in dissolving, and allow it
to sit for 30 minutes, once it has dissolved. The effectiveness of
treatment depends on the cloudiness, pH and temperature of the water.
If the water is especially cloudy or has large particles floating in
it, you should filter it using a paper towel, cloth or coffee filter
first, to remove dirt and sediment. The colder the water, the less
effective the treatment will be. If the temperature is below 40 degrees
Fareinheit, double the contact time. It is best if the water is at
least 60 degrees before treating. One downside to chemical treatment is
that it affects the taste of the water. Municipal tap water supplies
are usually treated with harsh-tasting chemicals, which is why many
people choose to purchase home water filters to remove them. However,
chemical water treatment has long been an effective method of water
disinfection, and remains effective in certain emergency situations. To
lessen the harsh taste of chemically treated water, you can pour it
back and forth between containers after it has been treated, or
add a pinch of salt or flavorings. Whatever your method of treatment,
there are many different solutions available on the market, so make
sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions. The two chemicals most
used as water disinfectants are iodine and chlorine.
For more information about boiling and chemical treatment as methods of
water purification during emergencies, visit the EPA website.
is one of two types of chemical water disinfection, and has been shown
to be more effective than chlorine at inactivating cryptosporidium and
giardia cysts. It is light sensitive and must always be stored in a
dark bottle. Iodine works best if the temperature of the water is at
least 68 degrees Farenheit. People with thyroid problems, people on
lithium, women over 50 or women who are pregnant should consult their
doctor before using iodine as a method of water purification. Some
people are allergic to iodine as well. In that case, chlorine is a
Chlorine is a chemical water treatment available for people who are
allergic or unable to ingest iodine. Most municipal water treatment
plants use chlorine as a disinfectant. Recently, however, scientists
have begun to probe the possible negative consequences of prolonged
chlorine exposure. It has been linked to respiratory aggravation and
asthma and may be carcinogenic over time. Because of this, many people
have installed water filters in their home, which remove chlorine.
However, it does remain feasible for use in emergency situations, where
no other method of purification is available.
UV radiation affects the microorganisms in water, by altering the DNA
in their cells, impeding reproduction and rendering them inactive. It
does not physically remove them from water; but it does prevent them
from causing waterborne illness, should they be ingested. Unlike many
other methods of water filtration, UV light sterilizes the water
without using harsh-tasting chemicals or producing waste water. Inline UV water filters attach
directly to your water line, and are great for purifiying the water
throughout your home during boil water advisories or other types of
emergencies. For UV filtration outside the home, you can use a portable
UV lamp like the Emergency Steripen
to purify small
amounts of water for drinking.
Emergency water filters
Katadyn manufactures several different types of water filters for
outdoor and/or emergency use. Frequent outdoor travelers, hikers and
campers use the Katadyn MyBottle water purifier,
which can be dipped directly into lakes, ponds, streams, and other
freshwater sources, removing 99.9 percent of bacteria, viruses,
protozoa and other water impurities, bad tastes and odors. The Katadyn Mini Ultralight microfilter
is even able to remove radioactive particles. These water filters tend
to be more expensive than your average home water filter, but in case
of emergencies, they are well worth the expense.
Katadyn water filters are
used by the US military, NATO, international militaries and relief
organizations like the Red Cross during environmental disasters or
emergencies where safe drinking water is scarce. Both the Katadyn Gravidyn and the Doulton Gravity Fed water filter system
will provide clean water for larger groups of people in times of
crisis. These systems don't require connection to a tap or pumping,
because they use gravity to push the water through the filter into the
lower reservoir. For maximum filtration, in emergencies with a very
large number of victims, you may want to invest in a Katadyn Expedition KFT water filter system.
This filter system uses a very advanced Katadyn KFT ceramic depth filter
element, which has a long-lasting filter life of 26,000 gallons and may
be cleaned several times before needing replacement.