Are you in the habit of washing fruits and vegetables you buy from grocery stores or farmers markets before eating them? It is easy to think of nature’s bounty as a pure source of good nutrition that can’t have any ill effect. You would be right if it was grown in your backyard without the use of pesticides or fertilizers. Except for many of us that isn’t the case.
Think about the last time you went to the grocery store. Did you pick up a piece of fruit or vegetable, turn it in your hand and check for ripeness before setting it back down? This is common practice and unfortunately a lot of people aren’t so meticulous about keeping their hands clean. Consider that before ever reaching the display a farmer has plucked the fruit with dirty hands or grimy machinery, in addition to the use of pesticides to protect their crops from insects. These potentially unsafe handling practices can spark outbreaks of E.coli or other long-term health issues that can lead to serious health problems.
The issue of eating unclean produce even extends to organically grown food, as a Scientific America article mentions:
“Even if the organic food you’re eating is from a farm which uses little to no pesticides at all, there is another problem: getting rid of pesticides doesn’t mean your food is free from harmful things. Between 1990 and 2001, over 10,000 people fell ill due to foods contaminated with pathogens like E. coli, and many have organic foods to blame. That’s because organic foods tend to have higher levels of potential pathogens.”
The article goes on to say, “the reason for the higher pathogen prevalence is likely due to the use of manure instead of artificial fertilizers, as many pathogens are spread through fecal contamination. Conventional farms often use manure, too, but they use irradiation and a full array of non-organic anti-microbial agents as well, and without those, organic foods run a higher risk of containing something that will make a person sick.”
Let’s cut to the chase. Cleaning fruits and vegetables isn’t difficult. Except water alone isn’t enough. In supermarkets you will find packaging for certain products that read: Double or triple washed. This may be enough but doesn’t provide enough of a guarantee as a lot of produce, vegetables especially, have deep crevices or areas that might not be exposed to running water.
NPR looked at a Cook’s Illustrated study to determine the best method to cleaning fruits and vegetables . The outcome? Using a scrub brush removes 85% of bacteria, while diluting 1 cup of white vinegar in 3 cups water works to remove 98% of bacteria. Because that is the most effective method for clean food, it’s what we want everyone to to use going forward.
It is also very easy! For smooth skinned produce you can fill a spray bottle and coat the surface of your produce 6 or more times, let it sit for 30 seconds, then rinse. Lettuce, Kale, broccoli, and other produce with areas that are hard to clean need to soak for 2-minutes in the same 1-to-3 solution of white vinegar and water. Note that leaves should be separated to ensure complete coverage. To prevent cross-contamination clean your sink when finished!
That leaves one final question: Tap water or filtered water? The point of washing our food is to ensure total food safety! As we recently wrote, filtering tap water isn’t all that expensive. There are chemicals in our water supply like chlorine that kill bacteria but leave behind unpleasant tastes and can damage the cells in our body. Plus, contaminants are proving to be an ever-present threat even in large cities where we would clean water would be more important when hundreds of thousands are at risk.
So yes, you should definitely filter your water before cleaning fruit or vegetables! Whatever you expose your food to leaves a risk of contamination.
Since you will be working around your sink when washing fruit and vegetables, we highly recommend a water faucet filter or under sink water filter system. Faucet filter systems either twist onto the end of the spout or sit between the water line and the faucet. Under sink systems stay out of sight though require tools and a little know-how to install. Either solution gives you cleaner water at the turn of a handle. Remember, filtered water is marginally more expensive that tap water alone, with most water filters capable of removing waterborne contaminants from hundreds of gallons of water before they should be replaced.
After conducting a 4-year-study and independent testing of over 1,000 bottles of water, the National Resource Defense Council found there were no assurances that bottled water is any cleaner than tap water. They also found that at least 25 percent of bottled water is believed to be bottled tap water. A 2010 Environmental Working Group study found that among the 10 best-selling brands including Aquafinia, Dasani, Crystal Geyser, and 6 of 7 Nestle branded water could not answer the following questions: Where does the water come from; is it purified; how is it purified; and have tests found any contaminants?
The average cost of a 16.9 ounce water bottle is about $1.20. Compare that to homeowners who on average pay $5.34 per 1000 gallons of water. If you are wondering 1000 gallons of water is the equivalent of 128,000 ounces. That means you are paying $.071 for each ounce of water in a bottle, versus $.00004171875 from the tap (that is 1,800 times less). To fill a 16.9 ounce bottle with tap water it would cost $.000705046875. We are talking about numbers that are a fraction of a penny.
So why are you paying upwards of 1,800 times more per ounce over the water you get from your tap? For a lot of us the answer is taste. What comes out of our faucet might not give us the greatest confidence. Unpleasant odors and taste are rarely an accurate indication that something is wrong. Bottled water can often be described as tasting fresh.
If you are connected to a public utility, your drinking water might not seem very fresh because it has undertaken a long journey from the time it was taken from a source to reaching your tap. The most common complaints about taste is almost guaranteed to be the result of chlorine being used to disinfect water. Chlorine diluted in water supplies has few health risks, however there can be unpleasant side effects. An earthy or musty smell is likely the result of bacteria or algae likely growing on the inside of taps or around rubber washers. Bitter metallic tastes can be sign that old fixtures might need replaced.
For the residents of Flint, Michigan there are real concerns over health issues related to contaminated water. In emergencies bottled water can be a means to basic survival. For the rest of us, we are buying into an $11.8 billion industry that often operates on the perception of clean water.
Except you can have clean and safe water without spending a lot of money or polluting the environment as the result of 75% of water bottles not being recycled. You can buy a 5-pack of Brita filters that use carbon filtration to absorb the unpleasant tastes and odors, copper, cadmium and mercury at a cost of $6.75 per filter. Remember: Buying filters in bulk can save you a lot over buying single packs.
So, a Brita filter has a recommended capacity of 40 gallons, that converts to 5120 ounces. That means running regular old tap water through my Brita I can fill a 16.9 ounce water bottle for about $.022 (nearly 54 times less expensive than buying a bottle of water.)
If you have a refrigerator, what about those filters? Good news, we have an entire article dedicated to the subject of replacing your refrigerator water filter. But lets focus on just the numbers for now. We looked at the Whirlpool EDR3RXD1 and found it is designed to filter 200 gallons, or 25600 ounces of water. At a cost of $42.90 per filter, you can fill a 16.9 ounce water bottle for $.028 (nearly 43 times less expensive than a bottle of water). The comparable Water Sentinel WSW-5 costs $29.90 and also filters 200 gallons at a cost of $.019 to fill a 16.9 ounce bottle of water.
For fun, let’s look at how much a family of 4 would spend if they each consumed the recommended 64 ounces of fluids per day for a whole year from the following sources, assuming a cost of $5.34 per 1000 gallons of water from the tap and $1.20 for a 16.9 ounce bottle of water:
What does all of this tell us? Filters not only reduce or remove bad tastes and odors, they are better for the environment because they last longer and use less plastic, and they can save you thousands of dollars.